Faculty and Students Trained on Elearning
Mekelle University with support of One Health Workforce Project through One Health Central and Eastern Africa (OHCEA) has conducted e-learning training for 26 faculty and 28 students from the 8 colleges and 1 Institute.The training was conducted from March 08th to 11th, 2016 at Mekelle University College of veterinary Medicine. Facilitators for the training included Nima Salehi, Breanne Krzyzanowski and Cheryl Robertson from the University of Minnesota; Senay Bekele and Yamane Seged from ICT department of Mekelle University; and the OHCEA Focal Person Dr. Berihun Afera.
This workshop offered faculty hands-on training on online course design basics, creating online modules, as well as online feedback and evaluation. Students learnt how to access the online courses and other resources. Feedback from participants’ evaluation indicated that participants had appreciated the importance of e-learning and would use the knowledge gained to train students. To facilitate more many people benefits from e-Learning, successive training should be given to faculty who did not benefit from this training.
Hand Washing: Examples of models delivered by the students on One Health Institute at Makerere University
Frequent Hand washing prevents spread of disease (such as Salmonella, respiratory infections, diarhoeal diseases) from one individual to another. It is also important that hands are washed properly using correct techniques, with clean water and soap. Where possible prevention of re-contamination of clean hands should be averted when turning off the faucet or taps.
The participants in the One Health Institute at Makerere University interacted with the community offering education on hand washing using the interface of three different one health education activities – (i) The Graduate Fellowship program, (ii) Undergraduate Field Attachment and the (iii)Undergraduate Innovations.
Techniques on Hand-Washing/ Hand rubbing
Between June and September 2016, the One Health Institute at Makerere University pioneered high-level fellowship placements of 3 months duration for 20 graduate students. This was done at Institutions and Organizations such as the government ministries, international agencies, private sector, academia, NGOs. At these institutions and organizations, the graduate fellows were tasked to deliver needed services, build competencies especially in one health and build a resume of real work.
The graduate students were drawn from five institutions of higher learning: Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS), Makerere University College of Veterinary Medicine Animal Resources and Biosecurity (COVAB), Makerere University College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences (CAES), Makerere University College of Business and Management Science (CoBAMS) and Makerere University Business School (MUBS) in a multidisciplinary, experiential training, and mentorship-training model.
Bayo Maliyamungu Richard, with a first degree in Animal Production and Technology, and pursuing an M.Sc. in International Infectious Disease Management was placed at the International Disease Institute- Global Health[m1] . Here, Richard engaged in development of training tools, slides for infection, prevention and control of infectious diseases for health care facilities. This included self-training on the World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene program in preparation for training other personnel. It basically involved protocols on when and how to either hand-wash with water or hand-rub with alcohol gel.
The main advantage of the Tippy Tap is prevention of re-contamination of clean hands after hand-washing.
The Tippy Tap consists of a small container of water, preferably a 5-liter jerry-can with a small hole punctured near the cap. When filled with water, and tipped using a device with a stick and rope that is passed through a hole in the jerry-can cap, it dispenses reasonable amounts of water for hand washing.
During the undergraduate multidisciplinary Field Attachment, undergraduate students in multidisciplinary teams of 8-15 students at the One Health demo site at Bwera and Rubirizi were engaged in hand-hygiene drives during one health primary school outreaches. In addition to underscoring the importance of washing hands, they taught the pupils how to make tippy-taps.
; Rubirizi OH demo site team demonstrating the principal of the tippy tap at Kafuro primary school, and Right; Bwera OH demo site team with the tippy tap at Bwera Church of Uganda Primary School (above)
Improved Tippy-Tap: Undergraduate Research Innovation installed at a rural secondary school
Undergraduate Research Innovation installed at a rural secondary school
The improved tippy tap hand washing facility aimed at improving the rate of hand washing in schools. This tippy tap bucket has a higher water capacity of about 20 liters and is connected to a larger water reservoir that traps rain water. The facility automatically refills and therefore the pupils don’t have to worry about refilling the bucket in case it runs empty.
This was research innovation was led by a multidisciplinary team of undergraduate students headed by Ms. Annet Luyiga (Bachelors of Environmental Health from Mak-School of Public Health). The other team members were Mr. Ssengonga Andrew (BSc. Mechanical Engineering); Ms. Akong Deborah; Ms. Namajja Solome and Ms. Ninsiima Lesley Rose, all pursuing a Bachelors of . Environmental Health degree.
The team was part of the 24 teams that were competitively selected out of 35 applicants to implement their innovation using an OHCEA grant of U.S. dollars $600.
The improved tippy tap was installed at a rural secondary school Itanda Secondary School, in Buwora village on Kaliro Road in Iganga district that has about 1,374 studen
Expelling Bats from a Primary School in Kahendero, Kasese Municipality
During the OH Field Attachments in Kasese Municipality, a multidisciplinary team of about fifteen students (Social Scientists (4), Environmental Health Scientists (2), Meteologist (1), Biomedical Laboratory Technologist (1), Telecommunications Engineer (1) Industrial and Organisational Psychologist (1), Soft Ware Engineer (1), Wild Life Conservationist (1), Veterinary Medicine (1), Medical Doctor (1) and Development Worker (1), Veterinarians, Environmental Health officers, Wildlife Health Management Officers, Medical Doctors and Social Scientists) encountered a problem of bats in Kahendero Primary School.
Bats are probable reservoirs of Haemorrhagic Fevers - Ebola, Marburg etc. and rabies. They also emit offensive odours making inhabiting houses where there are colonies of bats difficult.
Previous solutions offered by the Veterinary and Wildlife departments included fumigating the bats and disposing of the dead ones - this was done at Kahendero Health Centre. However, they do return after a period of time and the fumes are toxic to the community especially the occupants of the houses.
One Health Solution offered by the OH Kaseses Multidisciplinary team had three aspects.
Educate the community on the dangers of the bats - the school children, teachers and other interested members of the public were all targeted.
However, bats are also useful to the ecosystem and therefore if it were possible the colonies of bats should be encouraged to relocate back to the bushes and trees instead of colonizing the houses. The students came up with an ecosystem friendly bat repellent made out of ethno substances (eucalyptus bark and leaves and cinnamon) which, when applied to the houses would successfully expel the bats. The pungent smell of the oils from these plants is a good repellent. In order to extract these oils a solution of alcohol was needed and a local gin popularly known as ‘kasese’ was easily obtained. To be able to apply the ecosystem friendly ethno-bat repellent to the buildings paint was used as a base to enable the repellent remain for a longer period of time.
The gaps in the school building between the roof and the walls, which the bats were using to access the school buildings had to be sealed off to prevent them from returning. The students from the College of Engineering, Design, Art and Technology (CEDAT) sealed all gaps in the roof with a cement and mortar base to prevent re-entry by the bats.
One Health Central and Eastern Africa (OHCEA) Officialy Launched in Cameroon
OHCEA is a network of 21 Public Health and Veterinary Higher Education Institutions that are located in eight African countries including Cameroon. OHCEA’s main goal is to build capacity in One Health through multi-disciplinary research, training and community service. The Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Montagne became a member of OHCEA in July 2015. A year later, OHCEA expanded the network in Cameroon by adding University of Buea’s Faculty of Health Sciences, and Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine. Following one year of implementation of the USAID funded One Health Workforce project in Cameroon, OHCEA was officially launched on 28th October 2016 at the Hotel Mont Febe in Yaoundé.
The launch brought together key One Health (OH) stakeholders in Cameroon government, EPT partners, Development Partners, USU Partners, University Representatives and OHCEA representatives. The representative of the Minister of Health, Cameroon Professor Samuel KINGUE was the chief guest. Also in attendance were officials of the Ministry of Higher Education; some members of the Diplomatic corps accredited to Cameroon; Representatives from Predict; P&R; Faculty members of both Universities, members of the Students One Health club and local media. Prof John David Kabasa, was the Head of delegation of OHCEA. Other OHCEA members included, Prof Tadesse, a Board Member, Dr. Irene Naigaga, Program Manager and Dr. Juvenal Kagarama, One Health Workforce Technical Advisor, Francophone.
In his welcome address, the President of the University des Montagne, Professor Lazare KAPTUE, the host, thanked everyone for honoring the occasion with their presence. He particularly paid tribute to OHCEA for having admitted the two institutions into the network thus giving them the opportunity of building a professional workforce capable of responding to zoonotic diseases. He promised to work with partners to contribute to Global One Health Movement.
P&R Country Deputy Representative, Serge Nzietchueng outlined the long-term relationship between world population growth and the emergence & spread of pandemic diseases.
Professor John David Kabasa delivered the occasion’s key note address on the role of Universities and Education in general in shaping a professional workforce capable of combating emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases.
He cautioned that Africa being a ‘global bio-risk incubator’, there is need to be safe and clean as Africa moves about to integrate and do business in the global world. He called for a dissolution of ‘sectoral and discipline tribalism’, starting with university training, urging that the future is intertwined