Frequent Hand washing prevents spread of disease (such as Salmonella, respiratory infections, diarhoeal diseases) from one individual to another. It is also important that hands are washed properly using correct techniques, with clean water and soap. Where possible prevention of re-contamination of clean hands should be averted when turning off the faucet or taps.
The participants in the One Health Institute at Makerere University interacted with the community offering education on hand washing using the interface of three different one health education activities – (i) The Graduate Fellowship program, (ii) Undergraduate Field Attachment and the (iii)Undergraduate Innovations.
Techniques on Hand-Washing/ Hand rubbing
Between June and September 2016, the One Health Institute at Makerere University pioneered high-level fellowship placements of 3 months duration for 20 graduate students. This was done at Institutions and Organizations such as the government ministries, international agencies, private sector, academia, NGOs. At these institutions and organizations, the graduate fellows were tasked to deliver needed services, build competencies especially in one health and build a resume of real work.
The graduate students were drawn from five institutions of higher learning: Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS), Makerere University College of Veterinary Medicine Animal Resources and Biosecurity (COVAB), Makerere University College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences (CAES), Makerere University College of Business and Management Science (CoBAMS) and Makerere University Business School (MUBS) in a multidisciplinary, experiential training, and mentorship-training model.
Bayo Maliyamungu Richard, with a first degree in Animal Production and Technology, and pursuing an M.Sc. in International Infectious Disease Management was placed at the International Disease Institute- Global Health[m1] . Here, Richard engaged in development of training tools, slides for infection, prevention and control of infectious diseases for health care facilities. This included self-training on the World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene program in preparation for training other personnel. It basically involved protocols on when and how to either hand-wash with water or hand-rub with alcohol gel.
The main advantage of the Tippy Tap is prevention of re-contamination of clean hands after hand-washing.
The Tippy Tap consists of a small container of water, preferably a 5-liter jerry-can with a small hole punctured near the cap. When filled with water, and tipped using a device with a stick and rope that is passed through a hole in the jerry-can cap, it dispenses reasonable amounts of water for hand washing.
During the undergraduate multidisciplinary Field Attachment, undergraduate students in multidisciplinary teams of 8-15 students at the One Health demo site at Bwera and Rubirizi were engaged in hand-hygiene drives during one health primary school outreaches. In addition to underscoring the importance of washing hands, they taught the pupils how to make tippy-taps.
; Rubirizi OH demo site team demonstrating the principal of the tippy tap at Kafuro primary school, and Right; Bwera OH demo site team with the tippy tap at Bwera Church of Uganda Primary School (above)
Improved Tippy-Tap: Undergraduate Research Innovation installed at a rural secondary school
Undergraduate Research Innovation installed at a rural secondary school
The improved tippy tap hand washing facility aimed at improving the rate of hand washing in schools. This tippy tap bucket has a higher water capacity of about 20 liters and is connected to a larger water reservoir that traps rain water. The facility automatically refills and therefore the pupils don’t have to worry about refilling the bucket in case it runs empty.
This was research innovation was led by a multidisciplinary team of undergraduate students headed by Ms. Annet Luyiga (Bachelors of Environmental Health from Mak-School of Public Health). The other team members were Mr. Ssengonga Andrew (BSc. Mechanical Engineering); Ms. Akong Deborah; Ms. Namajja Solome and Ms. Ninsiima Lesley Rose, all pursuing a Bachelors of . Environmental Health degree.
The team was part of the 24 teams that were competitively selected out of 35 applicants to implement their innovation using an OHCEA grant of U.S. dollars $600.
The improved tippy tap was installed at a rural secondary school Itanda Secondary School, in Buwora village on Kaliro Road in Iganga district that has about 1,374 studen