Kenya One Health Students Clubs conduct extensive Community activities for the Kipkelion West Subcounty

March 19th 2016, the One Health Students’ Clubs- Moi University in Liaison with University of Nairobi and Kericho County Government, with the financial support of OHCEA through the One Health Workforce project, conducted an outreach activity to Chebirir primary school area, Kipkelion West Sub County, Kericho County.  

The visit to Kericho provided a field experience for 25 undergraduate students comprising of 3rd, 4th and 5th year students undertaking Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine. Kipkelion West was identified and chosen based on recent outbreak of Rabies disease and rural set-up that limits community to information access. The trip was a success owing to the contribution and participation of all who attended.

The activities carried out during the day included:

  • Rabies awareness
  • Vaccination of dogs and cats against Rabies and issuing of certificates of vaccination
  • Brucellosis awareness and education
  • Education on First aid for dog bites and animal handling
  • Hand washing
  • Hygiene and sanitation
  • Housing
  • Oral/dental health education
  • Family planning education
  • Breast cancer self-examination technique education
  • Cervical and prostate cancer awareness and education

The following experiences were gained during the event:

Organization and facilitation of field activity at community levels (choice of operation site, publicity, allocation of duties, crowd management and working with community leaders); field extension services (advising animal owners rabies disease control, management of dog bites and development of animal vaccination schedule); Vaccine handling, storage, preparation and dispensation to animals as well as animal restraint; Community education through Public Barazas.

On Brucellosis, public health students and veterinary students engaged the community members in education about brucellosis. The disease is endemic in the area. The community members take milk as one of their most dominant food. Brucellosis presents itself initially through signs such as recurrent fevers, sweats, malaise, anorexia, headache, depression, pain in muscles, joint, and/or back and fatigue. The disease is mostly misdiagnosed as malaria. It is a bacterial zoonotic disease which is mostly transmitted through ingestion of undercooked meat or consuming unpasteurized/raw dairy products. The people who attended therefore had the chance to be enlightened about the disease and were advised to seek medical attention in case of such symptoms and embrace the preventive measures and behaviour change in animal and animal products consumption.

Hand washing: Hands are the major pathways of germ transmission. During this event, the One Health students members took part in educating the members of the community on how to wash hands using water and soap through demonstration as per the guidelines of World Health Organization, (WHO).  The public health officers helped in the same and sensitized about hand washing before eating, after eating, after visiting toilet among other times.

Hygiene and Sanitation: Sanitation and hygiene are critical to health, survival and development. Many countries are challenged in providing adequate sanitation for the entire populations, leaving people at risk for water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) - related diseases. The Kipkelion people were educated on how to maintain the environment clean, how to manage solid wastes, and use of toilets/pit latrines sensitized. Open defecation was discouraged as it poses a risk for contamination of the environment, water and pastures and spread of diseases. They were advised to make use of locally available materials for construction of pit latrines and where to construct them in relation to the design of their homesteads.

They were also enlightened on to separate housing/ avoid living with domestic animals on the same roof to avoid jiggers, avoid dusty houses and to use locally available materials and techniques such and smearing the floors and walls using cow dung and soil to seal crevices where flees and other rodents thrive. 

Oral and Dental Hygiene: Oral health is essential to general health and quality of life. The community members, about all, were noted to have poor oral health, being characterized by the brown colour of teeth. This was attributed to by intake of water having high fluoride content and poor oral hygiene. They were advised to observe oral cleanliness through brushing their teeth regularly using the locally available materials such as sticks in case they couldn’t afford the manufacture toothbrushes. They were demonstrated to the right procedure of brushing teeth. They were also advised to seek medical attention in of teeth/ oral problems such as toothaches. This activity was mostly done by the dental surgery students from Moi University.

Family planning/ Cancer Awareness: One health students took part in educating mothers about family planning. Most of these students were nursing students from Moi University. They enlightened the mothers about the different methods of controlling birth available in the nearest healthcare facilities. Such methods are pills, depo provera, implanon, condoms. About 43 mothers received this education where they had been gathered in a secluded room. 

Cancer is a non-communicable disease. It is one among many diseases currently in the world whose numbers are arising in an alarming manner. This called for the medical students to utilize the chance to educate the mothers of breast cancer and cervical cancer. They educated them on how to self-examine themselves. Demonstration was also done on how to self-examine oneself. Pictures/drawings were also used to help them understand the concept better and easily.

A group photo of SUA and MUHAS students after the football match. The SUA team won 2-0

OHCEA Tanzania Conducts Inter-disciplinary Training for Undergraduate Students

Faculty and Students Trained on Elearning

Mekelle University with support of One Health Workforce Project through One Health Central and Eastern Africa (OHCEA) has conducted e-learning training for 26 faculty and 28 students from the 8 colleges and 1 Institute.The training was conducted from March 08th to 11th, 2016 at Mekelle University College of veterinary Medicine. Facilitators for the training included Nima Salehi, Breanne Krzyzanowski and Cheryl Robertson from the University of Minnesota; Senay Bekele and Yamane Seged from ICT department of Mekelle University; and the OHCEA Focal Person Dr. Berihun Afera.

This workshop offered faculty hands-on training on online course design basics, creating online modules, as well as online feedback and evaluation. Students learnt how to access the online courses and other resources. Feedback from participants’ evaluation indicated that participants had appreciated the importance of e-learning and would use the knowledge gained to train students. To facilitate more many people benefits from e-Learning, successive training should be given to faculty who did not benefit from this training.

 Rubirizi OH demo site team demonstrating the principal of the tippy tap at Kafuro primary school, and Right; Bwera OH demo site team with the tippy tap at Bwera Church of Uganda Primary School

Hand Washing: Examples of models delivered by the students on One Health Institute at Makerere University

Frequent Hand washing prevents spread of disease (such as Salmonella, respiratory infections, diarhoeal diseases) from one individual to another. It is also important that hands are washed properly using correct techniques, with clean water and soap.  Where possible prevention of re-contamination of clean hands should be averted when turning off the faucet or taps.

The participants in the One Health Institute at Makerere University interacted with the community offering education on hand washing using the interface of three different one health education activities – (i) The Graduate Fellowship program, (ii) Undergraduate Field Attachment and the (iii)Undergraduate Innovations.

Techniques on Hand-Washing/ Hand rubbing

Between June and September 2016, the One Health Institute at Makerere University pioneered high-level fellowship placements of 3 months duration for 20 graduate students. This was done at Institutions and Organizations such as the government ministries, international agencies, private sector, academia, NGOs. At these institutions and organizations, the graduate fellows were tasked to deliver needed services, build competencies especially in one health and build a resume of real work.

The graduate students were drawn from five institutions of higher learning: Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS), Makerere University College of Veterinary Medicine Animal Resources and Biosecurity (COVAB), Makerere University College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences (CAES), Makerere University College of Business and Management Science (CoBAMS) and Makerere University Business School (MUBS) in a multidisciplinary, experiential training, and mentorship-training model.

Bayo Maliyamungu Richard, with a first degree in Animal Production and Technology, and pursuing an M.Sc. in International Infectious Disease Management was placed at the International Disease Institute- Global Health[m1] . Here, Richard engaged in development of training tools, slides for infection, prevention and control of infectious diseases for health care facilities. This included self-training on the World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene program in preparation for training other personnel. It basically involved protocols on when and how to either hand-wash with water or hand-rub with alcohol gel.

The main advantage of the Tippy Tap is prevention of re-contamination of clean hands after hand-washing.

The Tippy Tap consists of a small container of water, preferably a 5-liter jerry-can with a small hole punctured near the cap. When filled with water, and tipped using a device with a stick and rope that is passed through a hole in the jerry-can cap, it dispenses reasonable amounts of water for hand washing.

During the undergraduate multidisciplinary Field Attachment, undergraduate students in multidisciplinary teams of 8-15 students at the One Health demo site at Bwera  and Rubirizi were engaged in hand-hygiene drives during one health primary school outreaches. In addition to underscoring the importance of washing hands, they taught the pupils how to make tippy-taps.

; Rubirizi OH demo site team demonstrating the principal of the tippy tap at Kafuro primary school, and Right; Bwera OH demo site team with the tippy tap at Bwera Church of Uganda Primary School (above)

; Rubirizi OH demo site team demonstrating the principal of the tippy tap at Kafuro primary school, and Right; Bwera OH demo site team with the tippy tap at Bwera Church of Uganda Primary School (above)


Improved Tippy-Tap: Undergraduate Research Innovation installed at a rural secondary school

Undergraduate Research Innovation installed at a rural secondary school

Undergraduate Research Innovation installed at a rural secondary school

The improved tippy tap hand washing facility aimed at improving the rate of hand washing in schools. This tippy tap bucket has a higher water capacity of about 20 liters and is connected to a larger water reservoir that traps rain water. The facility automatically refills and therefore the pupils don’t have to worry about refilling the bucket in case it runs empty.

This was research innovation was led by a multidisciplinary team of undergraduate students headed by Ms. Annet Luyiga (Bachelors of Environmental Health from Mak-School of Public Health). The other team members were Mr. Ssengonga Andrew (BSc. Mechanical Engineering); Ms. Akong Deborah; Ms. Namajja Solome and Ms. Ninsiima Lesley Rose, all pursuing a Bachelors of . Environmental Health degree.

The team was part of the 24 teams that were competitively selected out of 35 applicants to implement their innovation using an OHCEA grant of U.S. dollars $600.

The improved tippy tap was installed at a rural secondary school Itanda Secondary School, in Buwora village on Kaliro Road in Iganga district that has about 1,374 studen

Meeting with pupils, parents and teachers

Expelling Bats from a Primary School in Kahendero, Kasese Municipality

During the OH Field Attachments in Kasese Municipality, a multidisciplinary team of about fifteen students (Social Scientists (4), Environmental Health Scientists (2), Meteologist (1), Biomedical Laboratory Technologist (1), Telecommunications Engineer (1) Industrial and Organisational Psychologist (1), Soft Ware Engineer (1), Wild Life Conservationist (1), Veterinary Medicine (1), Medical Doctor (1) and Development Worker (1), Veterinarians, Environmental Health officers, Wildlife Health Management Officers, Medical Doctors and Social Scientists) encountered a problem of bats in Kahendero Primary School.

Bats are probable reservoirs of Haemorrhagic Fevers - Ebola, Marburg etc. and rabies. They also emit offensive odours making inhabiting houses where there are colonies of bats difficult.

Previous solutions offered by the Veterinary and Wildlife departments included fumigating the bats and disposing of the dead ones - this was done at Kahendero Health Centre. However, they do return after a period of time and the fumes are toxic to the community especially the occupants of the houses.

One Health Solution offered by the OH Kaseses Multidisciplinary team had three aspects.

Educate the community on the dangers of the bats - the school children, teachers and other interested members of the public were all targeted.

However, bats are also useful to the ecosystem and therefore if it were possible the colonies of bats should be encouraged to relocate back to the bushes and trees instead of colonizing the houses. The students came up with an ecosystem friendly bat repellent made out of ethno substances (eucalyptus bark and leaves and cinnamon) which, when applied to the houses would successfully expel the bats. The pungent smell of the oils from these plants is a good repellent. In order to extract these oils a solution of alcohol was needed and a local gin popularly known as ‘kasese’ was easily obtained. To be able to apply the ecosystem friendly ethno-bat repellent to the buildings paint was used as a base to enable the repellent remain for a longer period of time.

The gaps in the school building between the roof and the walls, which the bats were using to access the school buildings had to be sealed off to prevent them from returning. The students from the College of Engineering, Design, Art and Technology (CEDAT) sealed all gaps in the roof with a cement and mortar base to prevent re-entry by the bats.

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